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WGU C304 Professional Accountability

WGU C304 Professional Accountability Sample

Nursing professional derives insights from various theoretical and experimental underpinnings that inform practices and inspire decisions. Gasaba et al. (2021) state that nursing theories provide justifications and systematic explanations of nursing phenomena. Equally, they offer frameworks for theory-based practice, a profound dimension of improving care quality and enhancing decisions (Younas & Quennell, 2019).

Although nursing theories vary in terms of abstraction, they are effective tools for explaining, describing, predicting, and controlling phenomena. To effectively translate theoretical knowledge to practice, nurses should demonstrate research knowledge, familiarize themselves with mechanisms for data collection, and embrace ideal strategies for assimilating research findings.

This paper identifies a nursing theory that influences personal values and goals, reflects on the contributions of two historical nursing figures, and explains the functional differences between various nursing-related organizations. Further, it identifies and elaborates on two provisions of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics that influence my professional nursing practice.

WGU C304 Professional Accountability Instructions

Identifying a Nursing Theory that has Influenced My Values and Goals

As a nurse, my goals and values align with the determination to cultivate a safer environment for patients through demonstrating compassion, translating theoretical knowledge to practice, developing meaningful relationships with care recipients, and respecting patients’ values, beliefs, preferences, and preferences.

Other core values of my nursing practice are providing culturally responsive care, alleviating suffering, and improving patients’ resilience, courage, and strength to navigate life-threatening and challenging situations. Based on my nursing values and goals, it is essential to note that various nursing theories and models can influence my professional practice. One of the most profound nursing theories that influenced my nursing practice is Jean Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring, conceptualized in the second half of the 20th century.

Theory of Transpersonal Caring

Jean Watson is a popular nursing theorist with a reputable experience in clinical practice and nursing education. According to Gonzalo (2021), Watson has served in different organizational capacities since completing her doctorate in educational philosophy and counseling in 1973.

In the 1980s, she collaborated with colleagues to establish the Center for Human Caring at the University of Colorado. The Center for Human Caring was the first interdisciplinary center in the United States with a mission of utilizing human caring knowledge to inspire clinical practice, administration, scholarship, and leadership (Gonzalo, 2021).

It is essential to note that Watson’s capacity and position in the Center for Human Caring motivated her to develop the theory of transpersonal caring that emphasizes the premise of expressing care to patients by considering the humanistic aspects of nursing, as well as incorporating the tenets of scientific knowledge in nursing practice.

Besides calling for the incorporation of scientific knowledge in nursing practice, the concept of health promotion is central to Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring. According to Gonzalo (2021), the Watson nursing model presents nursing as a professional concerned with promoting health, caring for the sick, restoring health, and preventing illness. Based on the need to fulfill the mission of nursing, Watson defined the four metaparadigm concepts that underpin the nursing profession. These elements are person/human being, health, nursing, and environment.

Person/human being

Watson defined a person as a nurtured, understood, and valued care recipient with unique needs and the right to be protected while receiving care. According to Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker (2020), Watson’s view of a person as the recipient of care and as a being with unique needs necessitates healthcare professionals to embrace holistic approaches that focus on improving the state of a patient’s mind, body, and spirit. Equally, the perception that patients have unique values and need anchor patient-centered care (PCC), which is the core dimension of care in the current healthcare systems.


Watson perceived health as the “quality and wellness of the patient” (Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker, 2020, p. 7). In this sense, she believed that although the process of curing an illness is central to nursing practice, healthcare professionals should emphasize the psychological, social, and physical welfare of patients. Equally, she identified the need to assess patients’ needs and embrace holistic care approaches to provide individualized services and achieve optimal health.


Besides defining various concepts that underpin health and patients as care recipients, Watson provided insights into nursing as a process and a profession. Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker (2020) contend that Watson perceived nursing as how nurses will apply their knowledge and skills when caring for patients. In this sense, the process of channeling knowledge and skills during care delivery necessitates nurses to build meaningful relationships with patients, gather more information from care recipients to achieve better healing, and strengthen the rationale for patients’ physical, mental, and spiritual wellness.

Finally, she viewed nurses as advocates for patients and as an ideal source of guidance for optimal health. In the current healthcare systems, Watson’s perspective of nursing is consistent with the overarching demand to extend beyond preventing and treating illness to accommodate various advanced aspects, including spiritual care and the subsequent development of collaborative care models.


Care delivery does not occur in a vacuum. As a result, it is essential to identify and understand internal and external factors related to patients and institutions. According to Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker (2020), Watson defined the environment as “a caring and healing space to maintain humanity and help others to overcome pain and illness” (p. 7). Therefore, the nursing environment encompasses internal factors related to patients, including health conditions, literacy levels, and external aspects, such as health policies, regulations, and institutional practices, and infrastructure.

Theoretical Assumptions of Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring

Besides defining the four metaparadigm concepts central to nursing practice and profession, Watson’s theory proposed seven distinct assumptions that make it generalizable and transferable to current healthcare practices. According to Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker (2020), the major assumptions that constitute Watson’s theory are:

Caring is only effective at the interpersonal level
The caring process entails “creative” factors that enable healthcare professionals to fulfill specific human needs
An effective caring process promotes the health and wellness of individuals and families
Appropriate caring process responds to the patient’s current and future conditions
An ideal caring environment provides opportunities for patients to influence care trajectories and choose the best nursing practices at a specific time
Caring is related and intertwined with curing illness
Caring is a profound element of nursing practice.

The Clinical “Caritas’ in Watson’s Transpersonal Caring Theory

The seven assumptions of Watson’s theory contribute to the development of ten “Caritas” processes that explain the interprofessional perspective of nursing and allow nurses to actualize Watson’s theory in the current healthcare systems and practices.

According to Wei & Watson (2018), the ten “Caritas” processes are humanistic-altruistic values like kindness and equanimity for self and others, instilling faith and hope, valuing inter-subjective interactions by building trust, cultivating heart-centered-caring relations, acknowledging and encouraging non-judgmental feeling, systematically using creative problem-solving, caring processes, and promoting transpersonal teaching and learning.

Further, Watson’s “carative” factors include creating a healing environment at physical and non-physical levels, including potentiating comfort, dignity, wholeness, peace, and wholeness (Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker, 2020, p. 4). These aspects anchor transpersonal caring and allow healthcare professionals to develop meaningful interprofessional relationships with patients and modify the environment consistent with patients’ needs, values, and preferences.

How Nurses Apply Jean Watson’s Theory to Implement Nursing Practices

Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring encompasses assumptions, metaparadigm concepts, and “Caritas” processes that emphasize patient-centered care. According to Kuipers et al. (2019), patient-centered care entails providing services that are respectful and responsive to individual needs, values, and preferences.

Nurses can actualize Watson’s theory to achieve optimal care by developing meaningful relationships with patients, assessing and responding to patient’s health needs, modifying the environment to cultivate ideal spaces for recovery and restoration of patient’s health and wellness, and emphasizing non-physical aspects of care, including spiritual, psychological, psychosocial, and emotional wellness.

Equally, it is vital to instill faith and hope and attend to the patient’s spiritual-mysterious and existential dimensions of suffering, life, and death. Respecting patients’ spiritual worldviews and perceptions is crucial in promoting recovery and bolstering the efficacy of coping with life-threatening conditions.

How Watson’s Theory Fits in My Professional Practice

As stated earlier, my nursing values and goals include showing compassion to patients, utilizing scientific knowledge to inform nursing practices and decisions, demonstrating love and empathy toward patients, and modifying clinical environments to provide spaces for recovery and restoration of patients’ health and wellness. Equally, I believe that patient knowledge and insights are central to nursing practice. As a result, engaging them in collaborative care plans is vital to improve care quality.

Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring fits my clinical practice because it defines all metaparadigm concepts that underpin nursing practice. For example, Watson perceived nursing as a process of applying knowledge and skills to care for patients, as well as building relationships with patients to gather more information and capitalize on their inputs on nursing practice (Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker, 2020, p. 7).

Equally, the theory calls for healthcare professionals to consider the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of care, as well as advocate for clients to achieve optimal health. Finally, the ten “Caritas” processes establish thresholds for developing helping-trusting, human-caring relationships, applying humanistic-altruistic values like kindness and equanimity for all, and engaging in genuine teaching-learning experiences.

As a result, this theory is consistent with my nursing philosophy which entails applying scientific knowledge to provide quality care, improving social and relational skills, and involving patients in steps of collaborative care plans.

Identifying the Contributions of Two Historical Nursing Figures in the Nineteenth or Twentieth Century

Jean Watson and Madeleine Leininger are among 20th-century historical nursing figures whose contributions to the nursing profession remain significant today. As noted earlier, Watson’s primary contribution to nursing was the conceptualization of the transpersonal caring theory in the 1970s.

According to Wei & Watson (2018), the transpersonal caring theory is consistent with the overarching need to promote optimal health by encouraging interpersonal collaboration between healthcare professionals and patients. In this sense, the notion of holistic perspective and transpersonal psychology underpins Watson’s perspective of caring processes.

Equally, Wei & Watson (2018) contend that nurses use the transpersonal caring model to guide nursing education, practice, and research by actualizing the ten “Caritas” processes, including practicing love-kindness to self and others, cultivating trust through developing meaningful relationships with patients, demonstrating empathy and forgiveness, engaging in genuine teaching-learning experiences, and upholding patients’ spiritual worldviews and perspectives. Based on the need to individualize care approaches, Watson’s theory provides guidelines for providing patient-centered care.

Similarly, Madeleine Leininger’s perspective of nursing is central to current nursing practices, decisions, and procedures. According to Gonzalo (2021), Leininger (1925-2012) was a significant figure in nursing, considering her reputable experience and scientific knowledge. Like Watson, she participated in various institutional engagements, including working in nursing faculties and opening healthcare centers that enabled her to familiarize herself with issues affecting patients.

For instance, she served as a dean, professor of nursing, Adjunct Professor of Anthropology, and Director of the Center for Nursing Research and the Doctoral and Transcultural Nursing Programs at the University of Utah College Nursing between 1974 and 1980 (Gonzalo, 2021). Further, Leininger was a nursing educator, an academic administrator, a lecturer, a writer, and a consultant from 1971 to 1992.

Leininger’s identifiable experience in different institutional engagements and leadership positions emanated from a childhood interest in nursing and the subsequent knowledge advancement through scholarship and obtaining a doctorate in Cultural and Social Anthropology at the University of Washington in Seattle in 1965. Her specialization in cultural and social anthropology led to her major contribution to the nursing profession: the development of transcultural nursing theory.

A brief overview of Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory

Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory proposes a broader perspective of nursing practice that extends beyond transpersonal caring to accommodate the emerging rationale for providing culturally responsive care to a highly-diverse population. According to Gonzalo (2021), the theory has various primary components, including transcultural nursing, ethnonursing, culturally congruent care, professional nursing care, health, human beings, society and environment, worldviews, and the sunrise model of transcultural nursing.

From Leininger’s perspective, transcultural nursing focuses on analyzing, understanding, and appreciating cultural concerns to provide meaningful and effective nursing care services consistent with cultural values and health-illness contexts (Gonzalo, 2021). On the other hand, ethnonursing entails studying cognitively perceived and designated cultural beliefs, experiences, and value systems that determine people’s knowledge and perspectives of health and wellness.

Similarly, Leininger earmarked the need to provide culturally congruent nursing care that entails cognitive-based assistive, facilitative, and supportive interventions and decisions tailored to consistently respect and respond to individual, institutional, or group cultural values, beliefs, and practices (Gonzalo, 2021).

It is essential to note that providing culturally congruent care is an ideal approach for improving patient satisfaction and creating meaningful and supportive interventions consistent with the population’s needs. Besides defining transcultural nursing, ethnonursing, and culturally congruent nursing, Leininger’s theory of transcultural nursing provides insights into various metaparadigm concepts of nursing, including health, human beings, society and environment, and cultural and social dimensions.

Other subcomponents of Leininger’s care model are generic care systems, emic, etic, and culture shock. The sunshine model captures the major components and subcomponents of the transcultural nursing theory by Madeleine Leininger.

Differences in Contributions of the Two Historical Figures

Jean Watson and Madeleine Leininger share various similarities in their theoretical contributions to the nursing profession and its specialties. Firstly, Watson’s transpersonal caring model and Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory strengthen the role of nurses as analysts of healthcare needs and priorities for individuals and patient populations.

Watson perceived the need to assess individual health needs, priorities, and preferences to develop a patient-centered care model. On the other hand, Leininger stressed the need to understand the community’s healthcare needs, assess sociocultural perspectives, and respect cultural values, beliefs, and practices to provide culturally responsive care. The two dimensions call for an oriented, informatics-driven, and holistic care model.

Secondly, the two theories define various metaparadigm concepts that underpin the nursing profession and practices. Watson perceived individualized care as the product of the interplay between human factors, health, nursing, and the environment.

She provided ten “Caritas” processes for capitalizing and improving the four metaparadigms and achieving optimal care that encourages humanistic-altruistic values and relationships. On the other hand, Leininger nursing is a learned humanistic and scientific profession focused on activities to support, facilitate, and enable patients to regain their health and wellness (Gonzalo, 2021). Like Watson, she defined health, human beings, and the environment as a profound aspect of transcultural care.

However, the two theories differ in various dimensions, including the basic premises that underpin each theory. Firstly, Watson’s transpersonal caring theory overly concentrates on all concerted efforts to provide patient-centered care, including instilling faith and hope, developing helping-trusting, human caring relationships, promoting and accepting the expression of positive and negative feelings, and ensuring a systematic use of creative approaches for solving problems and making decisions (Najeh Alharbi & Ghazi Baker, 2020). Further, the theory recommends the integration of the spiritual perspective of care as a dimension of capitalizing and improving non-physical levels of human health and wellness.

Conversely, Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory perceived care from a broader perspective that entails comparative cultural care values, beliefs, and practices of individuals, institutions, and groups. According to Gonzalo (2021), the primary objective of understanding and respecting cultural diversity is to provide culture-specific and universal care practices that promote individual and community wellness and health. In the current healthcare systems, the transcultural nursing theory promotes culturally congruent nursing practices.

How the Contributions of the Two Historical Figures Influence My Professional Nursing Practice

The two nursing theories are highly generalizable and transferable to today’s nursing practices and contexts. Firstly, Watson’s transpersonal caring theory forms the basis of patient-centered and holistic care that respects individual preferences, values, norms, and worldviews. By developing human-caring relationships, instilling faith and hope, and strengthening the rationale for spiritual care, it is possible to improve the physical and non-physical aspects of care, including psychological, mental, and psychosocial wellness.

On the other hand, the transcultural nursing theory provides a profound dimension of capitalizing on the sociocultural contexts of care that improve people’s resistance, knowledge, and care utilization. For instance, different patient population demonstrates unique cultural values, norms, and practices that underpin the aspects of wellness and health. In this sense, providing culturally responsive care emerges as an essential process of promoting patient satisfaction and improving care acceptance.

The two theories influence my professional practice in various ways. Firstly, Watson’s transpersonal caring theory requires me to develop interpersonal and analytical skills that would enable me to understand patients’ health priorities, needs, and preferences. Equally, this care model necessitates the development of interpersonal skills, including effective communication, demonstration of compassion, and competency for modifying the environment to provide spaces for recovery and restoration of patient’s health and wellness.

On the other hand, Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory underscores the rationale for developing cultural competencies that underpin nursing practice, including the ability to provide culturally congruent care and respect people’s cultural values, norms, and beliefs. The transcultural care model enables me to develop non-judgmental thoughts on people’s sociocultural perspectives and use cultural dimensions as a source of resistance and as a facilitator of people’s health and wellness.

The Functional Differences Between the State Board of Nursing and the American Nurses Association (ANA)

The Roles of the two organizations

The state board of nursing (BON) is a government organization responsible for overseeing nursing licenses and defining the scope of practice for registered nurses and other healthcare professionals, including advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs).

On the other hand, the American Nurses Association (ANA) is a professional nursing association that advocates for nurses and provides opportunities for career development (American Nurses Association, n.d.). Equally, ANA contributes knowledge to the nursing profession by developing a Code of Ethics for nurses but lacks the legal authority afforded by the state boards of nursing.

How these two organizations influence my nursing practice

The two organizations influence my professional practice in multiple ways. First, the state board of nursing defines my role as a registered nurse and establishes thresholds for licensure, legal standards for nurses, and requirements for medication management practices.

On the other hand, the American Nurses Association (ANA) sponsors events that improve networking, scholarship activities, and career development opportunities (American Nurses Association, n.d.). Equally, it establishes ethical codes for nurses consistent with the overarching need to provide professional and ethical care.

The requirements for professional license renewal in Wyoming

Wyoming Board of nursing reviews applicants’ continuing education (CE) records every three years and sends a letter to the applicants with instructions to renew their licenses (Heatbeat, 2021). The state’s board of nursing requires license applicants to fulfill the following requirements; complete CE requirements, apply for license renewal and pay the fees.

The consequences of failure to maintain license requirements in Wyoming

Wyoming Board of Nursing requires a licensure revocation, suspension, lapse, and surrender if applicants fail to maintain license requirements. These approaches focus on preventing nurses from engaging in nursing practice without a valid, current license. Also, these measures seek total compliance with licensure requirements and are profound in promoting professionalism.

The differences between registered nursing license requirements in a compact state versus a non-compact state

In compact states, nurses can engage in clinical practice without the need to obtain additional licenses. However, nurses must apply for licensure by endorsement to the board of nursing in a non-compact state. Nurses should familiarize themselves with licensure requirements for the non-compact state before applying for a license through endorsement.

The Functional Differences Between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are federal regulatory agencies that can accelerate the progress of healthcare delivery. The FDA is responsible for regulating drug and biological products, as well as medical devices, from the premarketing phase to the last stage of the product’s life cycle. On the other hand, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) serves as a partner and steward for advancing health equity, expanding insurance coverage, and improving health outcomes.

How the two regulatory agencies influence my professional nursing practice

The two regulatory agencies influence my professional nursing practice in multiple ways. The FDA necessitates the development of safer medication products and devices, prompting healthcare professionals and manufacturers to comply with all safety thresholds. On the other hand, the CMS requires healthcare professionals to ensure health equity, spearhead insurance coverage, and address issues for improving health outcomes, including preventing readmissions. As a nurse, I am responsible for safeguarding care quality, and patient safety, and addressing health inequalities.

My role as a patient advocate in promoting safety when a person has requested to use an alternative therapy

As a patient advocate, I should ensure patient safety by educating them about the available treatment options and the pros and cons of the preferred alternative therapy. Also, I am responsible for providing resources, including information needed your make informed health decisions. I would encourage alternative treatment therapy if it guarantees improved patient health and wellness.

The Purpose of the Nurse Practice Act in Wyoming and its Impact on My Professional Practice

The Nurse Practice Act (NPA) governs the nursing practice by providing guiding principles for the scope of nursing regulations, including defining the scope of nursing practice, overseeing licensure processes, establishing standards for nursing school educational programs, defining the composition of the board of nursing members, and explaining grounds for disciplinary actions in the events of violations (Huynh & Haddad, 2022). As a nurse, I must operate within the scope of practice and regulations enshrined in the Nursing Practice Act of Wyoming.

The Scope of Practice for a Registered Nurse (RN) in Wyoming

The scope of practice for a registered nurse in Wyoming includes the following responsibilities and roles; retaining professional accountability for nursing care, participating in interdisciplinary healthcare teams, implementing multiple nursing processes, including comprehensive assessment of health issues, care planning, critical thinking, enacting treatment therapies like medication administration, and evaluating the client’s response to nursing care. Equally, RNs can document nursing care, educate patients, and provide delegation to other healthcare professionals.

How the state defines delegation for the RN

Wyoming’s standards of delegation require registered nurses to delegate tasks within their responsibility and scope of practice, retain the responsibility of the nursing process even after delegating components of assessment and care tasks, maintain accountability for the clients, and base the delegation process on the fundamental principles of health protection, safety, the welfare of the public, and the doctrine of client rights (Casetext, 2019).

Applying Various Roles to my Professional Practice

A scientist

As a nurse, I am responsible for spearheading research activities and leveraging the best scientific evidence to inform practices and improve decisions. Equally, I can play a forefront role in translating theoretical knowledge to practice. These roles are consistent with the need to implement evidence-based practice (EBP) to achieve optimal health.

A detective

As a detective, I must gather information regarding patients’ health and underlying health concerns, including conditions and illnesses. Also, I assess clinical records, review patients’ histories, and obtain lab reports to inform diagnoses. These roles align with the need to incorporate nursing informatics into clinical practice.

A manager of the healing environment

Nurses are responsible for cultivating a conducive environment for the recovery and restoration of clients’ health. As a registered nurse, I have an overarching role of transforming the physical environment, preventing environmental hazards, and improving the non-physical aspects of care, including the patients’ psychological, psychosocial, and emotional wellness.

Identifying Two Provisions from the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics

The two provisions from the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses are Provisions 3 and 5. Provision 3 requires nurses to promote, advocate for, and protect the patient’s rights, health, and safety (Haddad & Geiger, 2022). On the other hand, provision number 5 challenges nurses to fulfill the responsibility of promoting the health and safety of the patient by preserving the wholeness of character and integrity, maintaining competence, and continuing personal and professional growth.

How the two provisions influence my professional nursing practice

Provisions 3 and 5 of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses emphasize the role of nurses in improving and safeguarding patient safety through advocacy and protecting clients’ health and rights. Also, these provisions require nurses to promote integrity, the wholeness of character, and competencies needed to safeguard patient safety. As a nurse, I must adhere to these provisions since they provide insights into strategies for promoting patient safety and well-being.

A nursing error that may occur in a clinical practice

An example of a nursing error that can occur in clinical practice is the failure to adhere to the six rights of medication management when administering medications. The six rights include dosage, patient, timing, documentation, administration route, and medication. Overlooking one of these rights can lead to errors and subsequent adverse effects.

How ANA provisions apply to the identified clinical error

Provisions 3 and 5 can provide guidelines for preventing medication errors emanating from the failure to adhere to the right of medication management. For instance, these provisions require nurses to advocate for and protect the rights and safety of clients, as well as fulfilling the responsibility of promoting and safeguarding health and safety (Haddad & Geiger, 2022). They form the basis of advanced strategies for promoting patient safety, including the incorporation of advanced technologies, including barcoding technology and e-prescribing systems.

Identifying Four Leadership Qualities or Traits that Represent Excellence in Nursing

The concept of excellence in nursing connotes superior attributes, behaviors, and nursing status associated with the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to achieve optimal health and client wellness (Paans et al., 2017). To promote a culture of excellence in nursing, nurses should demonstrate four leadership qualities; must be knowledgeable, show respect to others, have effective communication competencies, and are competent in providing quality care.

The significance of the four leadership qualities in the nurse’s role in each of the following:

A leader at the bedside

Nurses at the bedside must demonstrate the four leadership qualities since they are accountable for and oversee the completion of patient care(Guiber-Lacasa & Vazquez- Calatayud, 2022). In this sense, they should promote effective communication, familiarize themselves with issues affecting the patient, understand the thresholds for quality care, and respect patients’ values, preferences, and perspectives. Further, they should be competent in providing patient-centered, culturally responsive care.

Within a nursing team or interdisciplinary team

Nurses operating as members of an interdisciplinary team should have communication competencies, understand team dynamics, demonstrate competencies for presenting findings to the interdisciplinary team, and exhibit the ability to collaborate with others, including by having commendable relational skills. Equally, demonstrating emotional intelligence and cultural competence is vital in promoting interdisciplinary collaboration.

How my work environment impacts the following:

Nursing leadership

The work environment constitutes various elements of workplace culture, including shared vision, norms, behaviors, and practices. In my workplace, practices like online leadership training programs, preceptorship and mentorship initiatives enable nurses to acquire leadership skills and assume managerial roles. These approaches are essential in promoting transition planning and improving organizational leadership.

Decision making

Equally, my workplace’s culture encourages transformative and democratic leadership, meaning every employee has equal rights in influencing clinical decisions, practices, and procedures. The concept of collaborative and collective decision-making improves team cohesion, promotes interprofessional collaboration, and strengthens nurses’ participation in care processes and decisions.

Professional development

Finally, my workplace culture allows the implementation of various professional development approaches, including scholarship, mentorship, and networking. In this sense, my organization supports evidence-based practice, collaborates with other institutions to promote various scholarship activities like publishing scholarly materials, and provides opportunities for improving leadership skills and competencies. These approaches are consistent with the need to provide limitless opportunities for ongoing learning and professional development.


American Nurses Association. (n.d.). About ANA enterprise. ANA. Retrieved November 22, 2022, from https://www.nursingworld.org/ana-enterprise/about-us/

Casetext. (2019). Section 3-9 – Standards of Delegation, 054-3 Wyo. Code R. § 3-9. https://casetext.com/regulation/wyoming-administrative-code/agency-054-nursing-board-of/subagency-0002-general/chapter-3-scope-and-standards-of-nursing-practice-and-cna-role/section-3-9-standards-of-delegation

Gasaba, E., Ntiranyibagira, B., Joseph, I., Uwamariya, T., Nkurikiye, E., Hategekimana, P., Ndarusanze, E., & Niyongabo, E. (2021). Nursing theory and its practices in two health care facilities of Bujumbura. Open Journal of Nursing, 11(9), 757–771. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2021.119064

Gonzalo, A. (2021). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/jean-watsons-philosophy-theory-transpersonal-caring/

Guibert‐Lacasa, C. G., & Vázquez‐Calatayud, M. (2022). Nurses’ clinical leadership in the hospital setting: A systematic review. Journal of Nursing Management, 30(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13570

Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2022, August 22). Nursing ethical considerations. NCBI; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526054/

Heatbeat. (2021, August 13). Wyoming Board of Nursing: Licensing renewal requirements for WY. Heartbeat.ai. https://heartbeat.ai/healthcare/wyoming-board-of-nursing/

Kuipers, S. J., Cramm, J. M., & Nieboer, A. P. (2019). The importance of patient-centered care and co-creation of care for satisfaction with care and physical and social well-being of patients with multi-morbidity in the primary care setting. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3818-y

Najeh Alharbi, Ms. K., & Ghazi Baker, Dr. O. (2020). Jean Watson’s middle range theory of human caring: A critique. International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, 3(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.31426/ijamsr.2020.3.1.3011

Paans, W., Robbe, P., Wijkamp, I., & Wolfensberger, M. V. C. (2017). What establishes an excellent nurse? A focus group and Delphi panel approach. BMC Nursing, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-017-0239-x

Wei, H., & Watson, J. (2019). Healthcare interprofessional team members’ perspectives on human caring: A directed content analysis study. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.12.001

Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory-guided practice: An integrative review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 33(3), 540–555. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12670

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